What is the ‘Goal Gradient Effect’ and how can it improve your design?
Understanding the Goal Gradient Effect
Ever notice how a runner speeds up as the finish line comes into view? That’s the goal gradient effect at work, a fascinating phenomenon where our motivation skyrockets as we see or approach a goal. And guess what? It doesn’t just apply to running. It’s everywhere, from your morning coffee loyalty card to the way design can engage users.
This idea isn’t new. In 1932, Clark Hull spotted that rats run faster when they can see the goal (food). Rats introduced into a new maze would be uncertain and slow in their progress, but if the goal was shown to them, they would speed up and tackle the maze with increased effort. Researchers Kivetz, Urminsky, and Zheng took this a step further in 2006 by using the goal gradient effect to demonstrate its influence on shopping and customer loyalty behaviors.
The Goal Gradient effect in the real world
- Loyalty Programs: You know that coffee card in your wallet? It’s nudging you to buy just one more, and faster too. Loyalty cards and stamp systems can motivate customers in interesting ways. For instance, a 12-stamp coffee card with a head start of two stamps was found to be completed faster than an empty 10-stamp card.
- Progress Tracking: Progress bars in mobile apps, online forms, and visual markers in services like Uber, Duolingo, and LinkedIn utilize the goal gradient effect to reflect proximity to goals and increase user engagement
- Social Influences: Goal gradients can influence social behaviors, such as charitable donations, especially if the fundraiser is close to reaching its target. The closer the fundraiser is to the goal (and validated by other users), the more users will contribute.
The Middle Slump Phenomenon
Picture this: you design a new app and many users are jumping in and onboarding or starting tasks, But halfway through, everything slows down. Users drop off before completing the goal. Welcome to the ‘middle slump.’
Causes of the Middle Slump
- Lack of Clear Progress: In the middle of a task, the end goal may seem distant, and progress may be hard to see for the user.
- Diminished Novelty and Excitement: The initial excitement of something new can wear off, leading to decreased engagement.
- Complexity and Overwhelm: As interactions progress, complexities may arise, leading to feelings of overwhelm for users.
- Complacency: A comfortable product without any sense of urgency or new challenges can lead to a plateau in effort.
Designing for the Goal gradient effect
- Offer a Head Start: By providing pre-filled templates, example answers, or credits for previous interactions, you can make the user’s journey toward the goal seem less daunting.
- Utilize Gamification: Incorporating gamification techniques like point systems or challenges along the way can stimulate user interest and engagement.
- Track and Acknowledge Progress: Whether it’s manually or through automatic feedback, showing users their progress can enhance their drive to complete a task.
- Break Down Milestones: Fragmenting a large task into smaller, achievable steps can make the end goal seem more attainable for the user.
- These ideas can leverage the goal gradient effect to keep users moving forward, but what happens when they hit the ‘middle slump’ and start to lose steam? Here are some ideas to keep the momentum going,
Strategies to Avoid the Middle Slump
- Reinforce Intermediate Goals: Breaking down the goals into smaller, achievable milestones and celebrating “micro-wins” can maintain momentum.
- Provide Regular Feedback and Encouragement: Continuous feedback and encouragement can reignite motivation, especially if users are praised for their specific achievements or progress.
- Introduce Novelty and Challenges: Injecting new challenges or fresh content can revive interest and commitment. This might include rotating tasks or the introduction of gamification ideas.
- Reinforce Progress: Showing rich content like charts or progress bars to show how far users have come can combat the feeling that little progress has been made.
- Offer Mid-Goal Incentives: Just as beginning and end incentives can drive motivation, mid-goal incentives like bonuses or tangible rewards can provide a boost during the middle stages.
The goal gradient effect can be a powerful tool for enhancing user motivation if implemented well. By understanding and harnessing this effect, designers can create more engaging and effective interactions to help users reach their goals. So, in your next project, why not consider the goal gradient effect? From head starts to introducing novelty, these insights can help boost user engagement and avoid the middle slump.